General Photography Fundamentals

In the following articles the basic fundamentals of photography in general and digital photography is explained in detail.

Body and Functions of a Single-Lens Reflex Camera

The two following images allow us to glimpse the inside of a digital single-lens reflex camera. Image 1 illustrates how the incident light hits the mirror through the lens and is then redirected to the viewfinder.

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DIN / ASA / ISO

Nowadays, light sensitivity is most commonly specified in ISO rates. In an ISO rate DIN and ASA are specified. Often (nearly all digital cameras) sensitivity is indicated in ISO but due to readability, only the ASA rate is displayed. .

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Image Sensors

Digital camera image sensors consist of light sensitive semiconductors made of silicon diode. When light hits, the individual photodiodes (pixel) convert light into electrical voltage. These electrical signals are selected and transformed into brightness values.

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Comparison Analog - Digital

A comparison of analog and digital photography (pros and cons)

Choosing the right camera is an important decision which precedes the actual photography itself. In the following article, the significant differences between analog and digital photography are compared. Both digital and analog photography have pros and cons which have to be weighed up against each other, depending on what they are to be used for.

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Image Quality and ISO Rate

In analog photography, the ISO rate defines the light sensitivity of films. Film sensitivity is usually indicated in ISO, DIN and ASA. More sensitive films have a higher rate of film grain which can result in visibly poorer image quality. Digital sensors also have different degrees of sensitivity.

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Types of Cameras

In digital photography, the different cameras can be divided up into categories. When it comes to purchasing a new camera, the pros and cons of each of these systems are crucial. When gathering purchase advice, ensure that these features are addressed.

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Diaphragm, Exposure Time, ISO Rates

In photography there are three main settings that dictate the exposure of an image: exposure time, diaphragm and ISO rate.

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Basic Settings

At first glance it might seem trivial but it is important to set certain settings on a digital camera or to check that they have been set.

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Resolution

The resolution of a digital camera is indicated in pixels. One pixel is the equivalent of one picture element and contains all the information about colour and brightness. What resolution do I need? This question cannot be answered universally as, depending on what the intended use is, there are different minimum resolution requirements in order to achieve optimal image quality.

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Image Compression and File Format

The picture quality in digital photography depends a great deal on file format and compression rates. These settings determine the size of the file. There are images without compression (TIF), with lossless compression RAW) and lossy compression (JPEG).

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Digital-Specific Problems

Digital photography does not only bring advantages. The photographer must be aware of some the particularities of digital photography.

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